Does decentralization good for reducing communal conflict? A multilevel analysis of communal conflict at Indonesia’s villages 2008-2014

Aris Rusyiana

Abstract


Whether decentralization is good for reducing communal conflict is still debatable. This study examines the linkage between three types of decentralization and communal conflict in Indonesia. Data come from the Village National Census (Podes) 2008-2014 (N=234,717).  Results of multilevel logit regression shows that only administrative decentralization that significantly associated with reducing communal conflict, while fiscal and political decentralization are not. The findings suggest that decentralization work for reducing communal conflict through better capacity of local bureaucrats.


Keywords


decentralization, communal conflict, multilevel analysis, Indonesia’s village

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akita, T., & Lukman, R. A. (1995). Interregional inequalities in Indonesia: a sectoral decomposition analysis for 1975–92. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 31(2), 61-81.

Arifin, E. N., Ananta, A., Wilujeng Wahyu Utami, D. R., Budi Handayani, N., & Pramono, A. (2015). Quantifying Indonesia's Ethnic Diversity: Statistics at National, Provincial, and District levels. Asian Population Studies, 11(3), 233-256.

Ascher, W., & Mirovitskaya, N. (2016). Decentralization: Shifting the Locus of Conflict. In Development Strategies and Inter-Group Violence (pp. 203-230). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Ballas, D., & Tranmer, M. (2011). Happy people or happy places? A multilevel modeling approach to the analysis of happiness and well-being. International Regional Science Review, 0160017611403737.

Barron, P., Kaiser, K., & Pradhan, M. (2009). Understanding variations in local conflict: Evidence and implications from Indonesia. World Development, 37(3), 698-713.

Blalock, H. M. (1984). Contextual-effects models: theoretical and methodological issues. Annual Review of Sociology, 353-372.

Booth, A. (2014). Before the ‘big bang’: decentralization debates and practice in Indonesia, 1949–99. Regional Dynamics in a Decentralized Indonesia, 501, 25.

BPS (2008). The Village Potential Census English Guideline 2008

BPS (2011). The Village Potential Census English Guideline 2011

BPS (2014). The Village Potential Census English Guideline 2014

BPS (2008). Data dan Informasi Kemiskinan Kabupaten/Kota 2008

BPS (2011). Data dan Informasi Kemiskinan Kabupaten/Kota 2011

BPS (2014). Data dan Informasi Kemiskinan Kabupaten/Kota 2014

Brancati, D. (2006). Decentralization: Fueling the fire or dampening the flames of ethnic conflict and secessionism? International Organization, 60(03), 651-685.

Bräuchler, B. (2015). Decentralization, Revitalization, and Reconciliation in Indonesia. In The Cultural Dimension of Peace (pp. 39-67). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Bridgman, G. (1995). Turning Away from Television Violence: The 1995 Media Watch Survey. Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand.

Brosché, J., & Elfversson, E. (2012). Communal conflict, civil war, and the State: Complexities, connections, and the case of Sudan. African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 12(1), 9-32.

Carey, P. (2008). The power of prophecy; Prince Dipanagara and the end of an old order in Java, 1785-1855 (pp. Xxx+-970). Brill.

Cheema, G. S., & Rondinelli, D. A. (Eds.). (2007). Decentralizing governance: emerging concepts and practices. Brookings Institution Press.

Coser, L. A. (1956). The functions of social conflict (Vol. 9). Routledge.

Diprose, R. (2009). Decentralization, horizontal inequalities and conflict management in Indonesia. Ethnopolitics, 8(1), 107-134.

Diprose, R., & Ukiwo, U. (2008). Decentralisation and conflict management in Indonesia and Nigeria. Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity, University of Oxford.

Diprose, R. (2008). Passing on the challenges or prescribing better management of diversity? Decentralisation, power sharing and conflict dynamics in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Conflict, Security & Development, 8(4), 393-425.

Duncan, C. R. (2007). Mixed outcomes: The impact of regional autonomy and decentralization on indigenous ethnic minorities in Indonesia. Development and Change, 38(4), 711-733.

Fazal, S. (2001). The need for preserving farmland: A case study from a predominantly agrarian economy (India). Landscape and Urban Planning, 55(1), 1-13.

Freedomhouse.(2009).https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2009

Galea, S., Karpati, A., & Kennedy, B. (2002). Social capital and violence in the United States, 1974–1993. Social science & medicine, 55(8), 1373-1383.

Galtung, J. (1965). Institutionalized conflict resolution: A theoretical paradigm. Journal of Peace Research, 348-397.

Gleick, P. H. (2014). Water, drought, climate change, and conflict in Syria. Weather, Climate, and Society, 6(3), 331-340.

Graaf, H. D. (1986). Runtuhnya Istana Mataram. Grafitipers.

Green, E. D. (2008). Decentralisation and conflict in Uganda. Conflict, Security & Development, 8(4), 427-450.

Gurr, T. R. (1993). Why minorities’ rebel: A global analysis of communal mobilization and conflict since 1945. International Political Science Review, 14(2), 161-201.

Gurr, T. R. (2000). Peoples versus states: Minorities at risk in the new century. US Institute of Peace Press.

Hegre, H. (2001, March). Toward a democratic civil peace? Democracy, political change, and civil war, 1816–1992. In American Political Science Association (Vol. 95, No. 01, pp. 33-48). Cambridge University Press.

Hill, H., Resosudarmo, B. P., & Vidyattama*, Y. (2008). Indonesia is changing economic geography. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 44(3), 407-435.

Hill, H. (1996). The Indonesian economy since 1966: Southeast Asia's emerging giant (p. 328). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hollander, E., d'Haenens, L., & Bardoel, J. (2009). Television performance in Indonesia: steering between civil society, state and market. Asian Journal of Communication, 19(1), 39-58.

IANSA, OXFAM, SAFERWORLD. (2007). Africa is missing Billion: International arms flows and the cost of conflict.

Jütting, J. P., Kauffmann, C., McDonnell, I., Osterrieder, H., Pinaud, N., & Wegner, L. (2004). Decentralization and poverty in developing countries: exploring the impact.

Kaufman, H. (1969). Administrative decentralization and political power. Public Administration Review, 29(1), 3-15.

Kingsley, J. J. (2012). Village elections, violence and Islamic leadership in Lombok, Eastern Indonesia. Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 27(2), 285-309.

Koentjaraningrat. (1964). Masjarakat desa di Indonesia masa ini. Jajasan Badan Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Indonesia.

Lambin, E. F., & Meyfroidt, P. (2011). Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(9), 3465-3472.

Litvack, J., J. Ahmad and R. Bird. (1998). Rethinking Decentralization in Developing Countries. The World Bank. Washington DC.

Mancini, L. (2008). Horizontal inequality and communal violence: Evidence from Indonesian districts (pp. 106-135). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Mansoob Murshed, S., Zulfan Tadjoeddin, M., & Chowdhury, A. (2009). Is fiscal decentralization conflict abating? Routine violence and district level government in Java, Indonesia. Oxford Development Studies, 37(4), 397-421.

Maystadt, J. F., & Ecker, O. (2014). Extreme Weather and Civil War: Does Drought Fuel Conflict in Somalia through Livestock Price Shocks?. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, aau010.

McIlwaine, C., & Moser, C. O. (2001). Violence and social capital in urban poor communities: perspectives from Colombia and Guatemala. Journal of International Development, 13(7), 965-984.

Miller, C. E. (2005). A Glossary of Terms and Concepts in Peace and Conflict Studies (2nd ed.). University for Peace.

Monteux, C. A. (2006). Decentralisation: The new delusion of ethnic conflict regulation? International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 8(2), 162-182.

Monteux, C. (2006). Federal Solutions and the Question of Kosovo: Reality or Illusion?. Students’ Best Papers Meilleurs travaux d’étudiants, 105.

Notosusanto, N, et al. (1980). 30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka 1945 - 1949 (Jilid 1) (1st Ed.). Jakarta: PT Tira Pustaka.

Palmer, P. J. (1987). Community, conflict, and ways of knowing: Ways to deepen our educational agenda. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 19(5), 20-25.

Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Skrondal, A. (2012). Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using stata 3 ed Volume 2: Categorical Responses Counts and Survival, Vol. 2. Tex: College Station.

Resosudarmo, B. P., & Vidyattama, Y. (2006). Regional income disparity in Indonesia: A panel data analysis. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 31-44.

Robert D. Putnam, Robert Leonardi, Raffaela Y.Nanneti. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civil Traditions in Modern Italy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Rondinelli, D. A., Nellis, J. R., & Cheema, G. S. (1983). Decentralization in developing countries. World Bank staff working paper, 581.

Rothchild, D. S. (Ed.). (1994). Strengthening African local initiative: Local self-governance, decentralisation and accountability (Vol. 3). GIGA-Hamburg.

Sangaji, A. (2007). The security forces and regional violence in Poso. In Renegotiating Boundaries (pp. 253-280). Brill.

Sanyal, B., & Mukhija, V. (2001). Institutional pluralism and housing delivery: A case of unforeseen conflicts in Mumbai, India. World Development, 29(12), 2043-2057.

Scambary, J. (2009). Anatomy of a conflict: the 2006–2007 communal violence in East Timor. Conflict, Security & Development, 9(2), 265-288.

Schneider, A. (2003). Decentralization: conceptualization and measurement. Studies in Comparative International Development, 38(3), 32-56.

Sheehan, P. (1991). Perceptions of violence on television. Australian violence: contemporary perspectives, 209-219.

Smith, S. L., Nathanson, A. I., & Wilson, B. J. (2002). Prime‐time television: Assessing violence during the most popular viewing hours. Journal of Communication, 52(1), 84-111.

Snijders, T., & Bosker, R. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and applied multilevel analysis.

Stewart, F. (2008). Horizontal inequalities and conflict: An introduction and some hypotheses. In Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict (pp. 3-24). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Stewart, F., Brown, G. K., & Mancini, L. (2005). Why horizontal inequalities matter: some implications for measurement. Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity.

Strauss, J., Beegle, K., Dwiyanto, A., Herawati, Y., Pattinasarany, D., Satriawan, E., & Witoelar, F. (2004). Indonesian living standards: before and after the financial crisis. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Sujarwoto, S., & Tampubolon, G. (2015). Decentralisation and citizen happiness: A multilevel analysis of self-rated happiness in Indonesia. Journal of Happiness studies, 16(2), 455-475.

Sujarwoto, S. (2012). Political decentralization and local public services performance in Indonesia. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 2(3), 55-84.

Sujarwoto. S. (2016). Does Democracy Make You Happy? Multilevel Analysis of Self-rated Happiness in Indonesia. Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan: Journal of Government and Politics, 7(1).

Sujarwoto, S., & Tampubolon, G. (2016). Spatial inequality and the Internet divide in Indonesia 2010–2012. Telecommunications Policy, 40(7), 602-616.

Sujarwoto, s. (2017). Geography and Communal Conflict in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 49(1), pp. 86-96

Sukmawan, D. A., & Yuwono, P. (2012). Melerai Konflik Antardesa (Studi Sengketa Air Desa Udanuwuh dengan Desa Dlingo).

Sundeep Waslekar, Ilmas Futehally. (2009). Cost of Conflict in The Middle East. Mumbai: The Strategic Foresight Group.

Suyono, C. R. (2003). Peperangan Kerajaan di Nusantara. Penelusuran Kepustakaan Sejarah. Jakarta: Grasindo.

Tajima, Y. J. (2009). Order and violence in authoritarian breakdowns: How institutions explain communal violence in Indonesia. Harvard: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; 2009.

Tajima, Y. (2014). The institutional origins of communal violence: Indonesia's transition from authoritarian rule. Cambridge University Press.

Tadjoeddin, M. Z. (2014). Explaining Collective Violence in Contemporary Indonesia: From Conflict to Cooperation. Palgrave Macmillan.

Tadjoeddin, M. Z., Suharyo, W. I., & Mishra, S. (2001). Regional disparity and vertical conflict in Indonesia. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 6(3), 283-304.

The Ministry of Home Affairs. (2007). Law No. 22/2007 about Presenting Direct Elections.

Tranchant, J. P. (2008). Fiscal decentralisation, institutional quality and ethnic conflict: A panel data analysis, 1985–2001. Conflict, Security & Development, 8(4), 491-514.

UCDP. (2015). Organized Violence in the World 2015. Sweden: UCDP.

UNDP. (1997. Human Development Report 1997. Oxford University Press, New York

UNSFIR (2004). Patterns of Collective Violence in Indonesia, 1990-2003. Jakarta: UNSFIR.

Van Klinken, G. (2007). Communal violence and democratization in Indonesia: Small town wars (Vol. 6). Routledge.

Vlekke, B. HM (2008). Nusantara: A History of Indonesia.

Vothknecht, M., & Sumarto, S. (2011). Beyond the overall economic downturn: Evidence on sector-specific effects of violent conflict from Indonesia.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.